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- Kuo Pei-Yu; de Assis Barros Luizmar; Sain Mohini; Tjong Jimi S. Y.; Yan Ning
- ACS sustainable chemistry 2016 v.4 no.3 pp. 1016-1024
- bark; biomass; catalysts; dioxane; epichlorohydrins; epoxides; hydrolysis; hydroxyl radicals; molecular weight; response surface methodology; sodium hydroxide; solvents; spray drying; temperature; tetrabutylammonium compounds
- ... This study outlines the influence of a series of reaction conditions on the yield and reactivity of the glycidyl etherification reaction of the bark extractive-based bioepoxy monomer (E-epoxy). To maximize the yield and epoxy content, the glycidylation reaction was examined with various substrates, solvents, catalysts, time periods, reaction temperatures, and sodium hydroxide/hydroxyl (NaOH/OHV) r ...
- Fábos Viktória; Lui Matthew Y.; Mui Yiu Fung; Wong Yuet Yan; Mika László T.; Qi Long; Cséfalvay Edit; Kovács Viktória; Szűcs Tibor; Horváth István T.
- ACS sustainable chemistry 2015 v.3 no.9 pp. 1899-1904
- ammonia; ammonium sulfate; catalysts; charcoal; dioxane; ethanol; formic acid; glass; lamps; levulinic acid; neutralization; odors; smoke; sulfuric acid; volatile organic compounds
- ... The sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of paper wastes in gamma-valerolactone (GVL) or dioxane leads to the formation of levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA), which can be converted to GVL by transfer-hydrogenation using the Shvo catalyst in situ or separately. The isolation of LA and FA was assisted by the neutralization of the sulfuric acid with ammonia to form a biphasic system. While the a ...