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- Penagos-Arévalo, Andrea C.; Billen, Johan; Sarmiento, Carlos E.
- Arthropod structure & development 2015 v.44 no.5 pp. 415-425
- Vespidae; animals; evolution; exoskeleton; head; hypopharyngeal glands; scanning electron microscopy; social insects; tropics
- ... Exocrine glands are involved in several wasp colony activities; however, the number of known glands in the Vespidae is rather low when compared to other social insect groups. The aim of this study is to survey the head of Neotropical social wasps and to provide a detailed comparative study of the glands found in the Polistinae. A total of 33 species distributed over 13 genera were studied with ser ...