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- Landman, W. J. M.; Germeraad, E. A.; Kense, M. J.
- Avian pathology 2019 v.48 no.2 pp. 98-110
- Influenza A virus; Mycoplasma gallisepticum; Newcastle disease; avian influenza; bacterial infections; case studies; decolorization; drugs; egg drop syndrome; egg production; egg shell; eggs; farms; flocks; hens; infectious bronchitis; intravenous injection; mortality; necropsy; nicarbazin; pathogenicity; viruses; Netherlands
- ... An outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) subtype H6N1 (intravenous pathogenicity index = 0.11) infection occurred in four productive brown layer flocks on three farms in the Netherlands within a period of two months. The farms were located at a maximum distance of 4.6 km from each other. The infections were associated with egg production drops up to 74%, pale eggshells and persisting h ...
- Bu, Ya-wen; Yang, Hui-ming; Jin, Ji-hui; Zhao, Jing; Xue, Jia; Zhang, Guo-zhong
- Avian pathology 2019 v.48 no.2 pp. 91-97
- chickens; Newcastle disease; specific pathogen-free animals; chicken eggs; morbidity; vaccines; Avian orthoavulavirus 1; viruses; genotype; reverse genetics; vaccination; death; virulence; mortality
- ... Intensive vaccination strategies against Newcastle disease (ND) have been implemented in many countries for a long time, but ND outbreaks still occur frequently, with most isolates belonging to genotype VII of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Many researchers have revealed that vaccines closely matched to epidemic viruses provide better protection. Therefore, using a previously established reverse g ...