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- Stahl, Jessica; Kietzmann, Manfred
- BMC veterinary research 2014 v.10 no.1 pp. 945
- propylene glycol, etc ; bioavailability; dimethyl sulfoxide; drugs; ethanol; high performance liquid chromatography; horses; lidocaine; thorax; Show all 9 Subjects
- ... BACKGROUND: The effect of physical and chemical permeation enhancers on in vitro transdermal permeation of lidocaine was investigated in the horse. Therefore, the effect of six vehicles (phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 50% ethanol, 50% propylene glycol, 50% isopropylalcohol, 50% isopropylalcohol/isopropylmyristate and 50% dimethylsulfoxide) was examined as well as the effect of microneedle pretre ...
- PubMed Central: