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- Trigo, José Roberto; Brown, Keith S. Jr.; Witte, Ludger; Hartmann, Thomas; Ernst, Ludger; Barata, Lauro Euclides Soares
- Biological journal of the Linnean Society 1996 v.58 no.1 pp. 99-123
- Apocynaceae; Arctiidae; Harmonia; Nephila clavipes; Nymphalidae; Solanum; bioassays; butterflies; females; flowers; food plants; larvae; leaves; males; moths; predation; predators; retronecine; weaving
- ... Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) often serve as chemical mediators of plant-herbivore-predator interactions. Butterflies (Danainae and Ithomiinae) and moths (Arctiidae) usually acquire PAs from plant sources (larval host plants, flowers or withered leaves visited by adults--pharmacophagy) and thereby become chemically protected against predators; they also use PAs as pheromone precursors. Study by GC ...