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- Ross, Bruce A.; Bray, J. Roger; Marshall, William H.
- Ecology 1970 v.51 no.6 pp. 1088-1093
- Abies balsamea; Acer rubrum; Betula papyrifera; Odocoileus virginianus; Pinus resinosa; Pinus strobus; Quercus rubra; browsing; deer; forests; herbs; long term effects; population density; reproduction; saplings; seedlings; shrubs; starvation; Minnesota
- ... Trees, shrubs, and herbs were sampled inside and outside an exclosure in a 230—year—old Pinus resinosa forest in north—central Minnesota from 1946 to 1969. Prior to the building of the exclosure in 1937, white—tailed deer had existed at or above starvation population densities for 10 or more years. Overbrowsing continued outside the exclosure until 1945 when the deer were virtually eliminated by h ...