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- Cabanillas, José
P.; Leiroz, Andrea T.; Azevedo, Luis F. A.
- Energy & Fuels 2016 v.30 no.1 pp. 1-11
- Reynolds number; crystals; heat transfer; industry; petroleum; pipelines; simulation models; temperature
- ... Wax deposition in pipelines is one of the most relevant flow assurance problems faced by the petroleum industry. Molecular diffusion of dissolved paraffin has been considered the dominant deposition mechanism in simulation models available in the literature. In case the pipeline operational conditions are such that the fluid temperature is below the wax appearance temperature (WAT), wax crystals c ...
- Yang, Jie; Dong, Zhaoxia; Dong, Mingzhe; Yang, Zihao; Lin, Meiqin; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Chen
- Energy & Fuels 2016 v.30 no.1 pp. 72-79
- cations; carbon; scanning electron microscopy; hydrophobicity; petroleum; rocks; oil fields; sodium; saline water; wettability; benzoic acid; calcium chloride; silica; van der Waals forces; calcium; oils; sodium chloride; ionic strength; adsorption; salinity; zeta potential; desorption
- ... From laboratory and field test results, it is now largely agreed that reducing the overall salinity, especially the concentration of divalent ions of the injected water, can markedly improve the oil recovery. However, as a result of the complexity of the crude oil–brine–rock (COBR) system, there is no clear explanation of why the divalent cations (Ca²⁺) are of major significance in a low-salinity ...