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- Hosseini-Nasab, S. M.; Zitha, P. L. J.
- Energy & Fuels 2017 v.31 no.10 pp. 10525-10534
- anionic surfactants; computed tomography; emulsions; foaming; fuels; nitrogen; oils; porous media; sandstone; surface tension
- ... Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil. Moreover, strong foam could create a large pressure gradient, which may cause fractures in the reservoir. Thi ...
- PubMed Central:
- Jackson, Michael A.
- Energy & Fuels 2013 v.27 no.7 pp. 3936
- acetic acid; acetone; aluminum; biofuels; carbon dioxide; cerium; eugenol; furfural; guaiacol; iron; isotope labeling; models; neutralization; oils; pH; phenol; pyrolysis; reaction inhibition
- ... The stabilization and upgrading of pyrolysis oil requires the neutralization of the acidic components of the oil. The conversion of small organic acids, particularly acetic acid, to ketones is one approach to addressing the instability of the oils caused by low pH. In the ketonization reaction, acetic acid is converted to acetone, water, and CO₂. Here, a 16 vol % acetic acid solution is converted ...