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- Halsey, Lewis G.; Green, Jonathan A.; Twiss, Sean D.; Arnold, Walter; Burthe, Sarah J.; Butler, Patrick J.; Cooke, Steven J.; Grémillet, David; Ruf, Thomas; Hicks, Olivia; Minta, Katarzyna J.; Prystay, Tanya S.; Wascher, Claudia A. F.; Careau, Vincent
- Functional ecology 2019 v.33 no.2 pp. 260-272
- birds; energy expenditure; fish; heart rate; mammals; reproduction; temporal variation
- ... Animals are expected to be judicious in the use of the energy they gain due to the costs and limits associated with its intake. The management of energy expenditure (EE) exhibited by animals has previously been considered in terms of three patterns: the constrained, independent and performance patterns of energy management. These patterns can be interpreted by regressing daily EE against maintenan ...
- Pavlovic, Gabrielle; Weston, Michael A.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.
- Functional ecology 2019 v.33 no.2 pp. 286-296
- analytical methods; appendages; biomechanics; birds; body size; climate; heat; latitude; phylogeny; plumage
- ... Heat conservation behaviours in birds in part involve postural adjustments to regulate the area of exposed body surfaces. However, the occurrence of these behaviours across birds, and the factors that explain their use across bird species, remains poorly known. We examined the occurrence of three distinctive bird behaviours—back rest (where the bill is tucked into the plumage), standing on one leg ...