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- Zhang, Liwei; Soeder, Daniel J.
- Ground water 2016 v.54 no.3 pp. 345-353
- West Virginia, etc ; air; aquifers; drilling; groundwater; groundwater flow; methane; models; natural gas; shale; wells; Show all 11 Subjects
- ... The vertical portion of a shale gas well, known as the “tophole” is often drilled using an air‐hammer bit that may introduce pressures as high as 2400 kPa (350 psi) into groundwater while penetrating shallow aquifers. A 3‐D TOUGH2 model was used to simulate the flow of groundwater under the high hydraulic heads that may be imposed by such trapped compressed air, based on an observed case in West V ...
- Molofsky, Lisa J.; Connor, John A.; McHugh, Thomas E.; Richardson, Stephen D.; Woroszylo, Casper; Alvarez, Pedro J.
- Ground water 2016 v.54 no.5 pp. 656-668
- West Virginia, etc ; anthropogenic activities; basins; calcium; data collection; drilling; environmental factors; groundwater; highlands; iron; methane; monitoring; nitrates; shale; sodium; sulfates; topography; wells; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Show all 20 Subjects
- ... The recent boom in shale gas development in the Marcellus Shale has increased interest in the methods to distinguish between naturally occurring methane in groundwater and stray methane associated with drilling and production operations. This study evaluates the relationship between natural methane occurrence and three principal environmental factors (groundwater redox state, water type, and topog ...