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- Carson, Walter P.; Banta, Joshua A.; Royo, Alejandro A.; Kirschbaum, Chad
- Natural areas journal: a quarterly publication of the Natural Areas Association 2005 v.25 no.1 pp. 10
- herbivores; browsing; vertebrate pests; deer; Odocoileus virginianus; plant communities; refuge habitats; species diversity; woody plants; herbaceous plants; forbs; shrubs; Betula; trees; forest regeneration; deciduous forests; rocks; Pennsylvania; Allegheny Mountain region; Allegheny National Forest
- ... Deer have been overabundant throughout much of Pennsylvania since at least the 1940's. We compared plant communities in the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) on boulder tops and the forest floor to test the hypothesis that large boulders serve as refugia for plants threatened by deer herbivory. Five of the ten most common woody species (hemlock, Tsuga canadensis L., mountain maple, Acer spicatum Lam ...