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- Inoue-Choi, Maki; Ward, Mary H.; Cerhan, James R.; Weyer, Peter J.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Robien, Kim
- Nutrition and cancer 2012 v.64 no.5 pp. 685-694
- DNA repair; breast neoplasms; carcinogens; databases; folic acid; food intake; nitrates; postmenopause; protective effect; public water supply; risk; women; women's health; Iowa
- ... Ingested nitrate can be endogenously reduced to nitrite, which may form N-nitroso compounds, known potent carcinogens. However, some studies have reported no or inverse associations between dietary nitrate intake and cancer risk. These associations may be confounded by a protective effect of folate, which plays a vital role in DNA repair. We evaluated the interaction of dietary and water nitrate i ...
- PubMed Central:
- Zaineddin, Aida Karina; Buck, Katharina; Vrieling, Alina; Heinz, Judith; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Linseisen, Jakob; Chang-Claude, Jenny
- Nutrition and cancer 2012 v.64 no.5 pp. 652-665
- Helianthus annuus; breast neoplasms; case-control studies; estrogen receptors; estrogens; food frequency questionnaires; food intake; lignans; plant estrogens; postmenopause; pumpkins; regression analysis; risk; seeds; soybeans; whole grain foods; women
- ... Phytoestrogens are structurally similar to estrogens and may affect breast cancer risk by mimicking estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In Western societies, whole grains and possibly soy foods are rich sources of phytoestrogens. A population-based case-control study in German postmenopausal women was used to evaluate the association of phytoestrogen-rich foods and dietary lignans with breast ca ...