woodquality, etc ; mathematical models; estimation; forest trees; discoloration; tree age; knots; equations; tree and stand measurements; oxygen; branches; heartwood; Fagus sylvatica; tree damage; Germany; Show all 15 Subjects
woodquality, etc ; Pinus sylvestris; forest trees; forest thinning; branches; diameter; tree crown; tree growth; height; natural regeneration; artificial regeneration; stand density; tree age; Sweden; Show all 14 Subjects
woodquality, etc ; Picea abies; stand structure; stand density; forest thinning; spatial distribution; forest trees; tree and stand measurements; tree growth; forest stands; stand management; knots; branches; Sweden; Show all 14 Subjects
woodquality, etc ; breeding programs; climate; economic impact; economic sustainability; forest industries; forest trees; forests; genetic improvement; land values; pests; plantations; plus trees; silviculture; society; tree breeding; Finland; Scandinavia; Show all 18 Subjects
... Plantations of genetically improved forest trees are critical for economic sustainability in forestry. This review summarizes gains in objective traits and the resulting economic impact of tree breeding programmes in Scandinavia and Finland. Genetic improvement of forest trees in these countries began in the late 1940s, when the first phenotypically superior plus-trees were selected from natural e ...