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- Brun, Eva M.; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel
- Trends in analytical chemistry 2011 v.30 no.5 pp. 771-783
- anabolic steroids; derivatization; detection limit; drugs; gas chromatography; humans; liquid chromatography; metabolites; pretreatment; screening; sports; steroids; urine
- ... Doping control in sport is mandatory to detect and to control the use of prohibited substances. Due to the growing number of targets, the analysis of doping compounds and their metabolites is carried out using established screening methods. However, detection of anabolic steroids with 4,9,11-triene structure in urine is problematic, so it is necessary to improve the methods. We review the state of ...
- Mahugo-Santana, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Torres-Padrón, Mª Esther; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan
- Trends in analytical chemistry 2011 v.30 no.5 pp. 731-748
- liquid-phase microextraction; pollutants; pretreatment; solvents
- ... Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) has been widely used as a pre-treatment technique for separation and preconcentration of organic analytes from aqueous samples. Nevertheless, this technique has several drawbacks, mainly in the use of large volumes of solvents, making LLE an expensive, environmentally-unfriendly technique. Miniaturized methodologies [e.g., liquid-phase microextraction (LPME)] have ar ...