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- Cui, Li; Chen, Pengyu; Zhang, Bifeng; Zhang, Dayi; Li, Junyi; Martin, Francis L.; Zhang, Kaisong
- Water research 2015 v.87 pp. 282-291
- DNA; Raman spectroscopy; bacterial adhesion; biochemical polymorphism; biofilm; biofouling; cleaning; nanofiltration; polysaccharides; sodium dodecyl sulfate; surfactants; wastewater; water reuse
- ... Periodic chemical cleaning is an essential step to maintain nanofiltration (NF) membrane performance and mitigate biofouling, a major impediment in high-quality water reclamation from wastewater effluent. To target the important issue of how to clean and control biofouling more efficiently, this study developed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a layer-by-layer tool to interrogate the ...