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- Mourad, Roya; Jaafar, Hadi H.; Daghir, Nuhad
- Water resources and industry 2019 v.22 pp. 100113
- animal production; beef; feed grains; industry; sheep; virtual water; water policy; water resources; Middle East; Northern Africa
- ... The Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) is one of the most water-scarce worldwide. Up-to-date estimates of the origin and types of water use in various industries are necessary to manage water resources and guide food and water policies. The objective of this study is to determine new estimates for the color-coded water footprint (WF). Using the Water Footprint Network approach, country-spe ...
- Vaca-Jiménez, S.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.
- Water resources and industry 2019 v.22 pp. 100112
- biomass; cooling systems; electricity; freshwater; fuels; greenhouse gases; industry; oils; power plants; water footprint; water power; Ecuador
- ... Hydropower, biomass and thermal power plants (HPPs, BPPs and TPPs) consume water. The WF tool quantifies freshwater consumption. We calculated direct and indirect WFs of 255 Ecuadorian power plants using different technologies and fuels classified into eleven subclasses. Median WFs are largest for BPPs, followed by HPPs, while WFs of TPPs were smallest, but variation in subclasses is enormous. For ...