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- Sangar, Shatesh Kumar; Syazwani, Osman Nur; Farabi, M.S. Ahmad; Razali, S.M.; Shobhana, Gnanasekhar; Teo, Siow Hwa; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin
- Renewable energy 2019 v.142 pp. 658-667
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction; acidity; biodiesel; carbon; catalysts; catalytic activity; esterification; fatty acid methyl esters; fatty acids; fuel production; glycerol; methanol; palm oils; scanning electron microscopes; sulfuric acid; surface area; temperature; thermogravimetry; transmission electron microscopy; viability
- ... Cost efficient and environmental friendly carbon derived glycerol (CG) was prepared by insitu carbonication and sulfonation process. The synthesized CG was sulfonated with H2SO4 for 10 h denoted as SCG-(10) catalyst. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared catalyst were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysi ...
- Idowu, Ibijoke; Pedrola, Montserrat Ortoneda; Wylie, Steve; Teng, K.H.; Kot, Patryk; Phipps, David; Shaw, Andy
- Renewable energy 2019 v.142 pp. 535-542
- animal wastes; batch systems; biodiesel; catalysts; esterification; fatty acid methyl esters; feedstocks; free fatty acids; fuel production; industrial applications; lipids; methanol; microwave treatment; sulfuric acid; tallow; transesterification; viscosity; water content
- ... Recently, due to its low cost there has been increased attention on Animal Waste Fats (AWFs) as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Advanced microwave technology has also been reported by many researchers to enhance the transesterification in biodiesel production. However, esterification of free fatty acids in the feedstock reported here has not attracted so much attention. AWFs come with its ch ...