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- Alexsandro Santana Vieira; Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias; Flavio Roces
- Arthropod structure & development 2015 v.44 no.5 pp. 444-454
- Atta sexdens rubropilosa; antibiotics; antiseptics; evolution; fungus gardens; leaf-cutting ants; microorganisms; nesting; organic matter; organic soils; pathogens; queen insects; risk; soil depth; soil horizons
- ... Queens of leaf-cutting ants found their nests singly, each consisting of a vertical tunnel and a final horizontal chamber. Because of the claustral mode of nest founding, the queen and/or her initial fungus garden are exposed to threats imposed by several soil pathogens, and the antibiotic secretions produced by their metapleural glands are considered a main adaptation to deal with them. Nests of ...
- Andrew Currin; Neil Swainston; Philip J. Day; Douglas B. Kell
- Chemical Society reviews 2015 v.44 no.5 pp. 1172-1239
- DNA; active sites; amino acid sequences; amino acids; biocatalysis; computer simulation; directed evolution; enzymes; epistasis; evolution; landscapes; synthetic biology
- ... The amino acid sequence of a protein affects both its structure and its function. Thus, the ability to modify the sequence, and hence the structure and activity, of individual proteins in a systematic way, opens up many opportunities, both scientifically and (as we focus on here) for exploitation in biocatalysis. Modern methods of synthetic biology, whereby increasingly large sequences of DNA can ...
- PubMed Central:
- Andrea C. Penagos-Arévalo; Johan Billen; Carlos E. Sarmiento
- Arthropod structure & development 2015 v.44 no.5 pp. 415-425
- Vespidae; animals; evolution; exoskeleton; head; hypopharyngeal glands; scanning electron microscopy; social insects; tropics
- ... Exocrine glands are involved in several wasp colony activities; however, the number of known glands in the Vespidae is rather low when compared to other social insect groups. The aim of this study is to survey the head of Neotropical social wasps and to provide a detailed comparative study of the glands found in the Polistinae. A total of 33 species distributed over 13 genera were studied with ser ...