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- H. E. M. Meier; K. Eilola; E. Almroth-Rosell; S. Schimanke; M. Kniebusch; A. Höglund; P. Pemberton; Y. Liu; G. Väli; S. Saraiva
- Climate dynamics 2019 v.53 no.1-2 pp. 1145-1166
- air temperature; atmospheric deposition; climate; climate change; ecosystems; environmental indicators; eutrophication; models; nutrient content; oxygen; pollution load; sea level; Baltic Sea; Ireland; North Sea
- ... In the Baltic Sea hypoxia has been increased considerably since the first oxygen measurements became available in 1898. In 2016 the annual maximum extent of hypoxia covered an area of the sea bottom of about 70,000 km², comparable with the size of Ireland, whereas 150 years ago hypoxia was presumably not existent or at least very small. The general view is that the increase in hypoxia was caused b ...
- Marianne Zandersen; Kari Hyytiäinen; H. E. Markus Meier; Maciej T. Tomczak; Barbara Bauer; Päivi E. Haapasaari; Jørgen Eivind Olesen; Bo G. Gustafsson; Jens Christian Refsgaard; Erik Fridell; Sampo Pihlainen; Martin D. A. Le Tissier; Anna-Kaisa Kosenius; Detlef P. Van Vuuren
- Regional environmental change 2019 v.19 no.4 pp. 1073-1086
- atmospheric deposition; climate; climate change; ecosystems; fisheries; human development; land use change; pollution; pollution control; shipping; socioeconomics; wastewater treatment; Baltic Sea; Northern European region
- ... Long-term scenario analyses can be powerful tools to explore plausible futures of human development under changing environmental, social, and economic conditions and to evaluate implications of different approaches to reduce pollution and resource overuse. Vulnerable ecosystems like the Baltic Sea in North-Eastern Europe tend to be under pressure from multiple, interacting anthropogenic drivers bo ...