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- Essner, Richard L., et al. Show all 4 Authors
- Northeastern naturalist 2018 v.25 no.2 pp. 248-264
- analysis of variance; anthropogenic activities; autumn; birds; chronosequences; forest restoration; forest stands; habitat preferences; habitats; hardwood; hardwood forests; models; spring; surveys; trees; valleys
- ... Since the 1950s, anthropogenic activity has caused the loss of millions of hectares of bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, causing population declines in bird populations. Restoration of these forest stands has been ongoing for the past 2 decades. We assessed bird species presence on sites in the Upper Mississippi River Valley to quantify diversity and relate presence ...
- Essner, Richard L., Jr, et al. Show all 8 Authors
- Functional ecology 2015 v.29 no.10 pp. 1308-1316
- Anura; ecosystems; energy expenditure; escape behavior; feet; forces; frogs; gait; hands; hops; kinematics; locomotion; mammals; phenotype; toads
- ... While most frogs maximize jump distance as an escape behaviour, toads have traded jump distance for endurance with a strategy of hopping repeatedly. This strategy has enabled toads to expand across the continents as one of the most diverse groups of anurans. Multiple studies have revealed physiological endurance adaptations for sustained hopping in toads, however, the kinematics of their sequentia ...
- Essner, Richard L. Jr., et al. Show all 4 Authors
- Naturwissenschaften 2010 v.97 no.10 pp. 935-939
- Anura; evolution; forelimbs; frogs; hindlimbs; jumping; locomotion; swimming
- ... All frogs are assumed to jump in a similar manner by rapidly extending hindlimbs during the propulsive phase and rotating the limbs forward during flight in order to land forelimbs first. However, studies of jumping behavior are lacking in the most primitive living frogs of the family Leiopelmatidae. These semi-aquatic or terrestrial anurans retain a suite of plesiomorphic morphological features a ...