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- Middlemas, Scott, et al. Show all 3 Authors
- Journal of cleaner production 2015 v.89 pp. 137-147
- carbon dioxide; energy; environmental impact; greenhouse gas emissions; hydrolysis; industrial applications; leaching; life cycle assessment; manufacturing; nanomaterials; recycling; slags; solvents; sulfates; temperature; titanium dioxide; washing
- ... Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used as pigment in a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications, and is becoming an increasingly valuable nanomaterial. TiO2 is manufactured by the traditional sulfate process or high temperature chloride process. Several hydrometallurgical processes for manufacturing TiO2 have recently emerged to reduce the environmental impact of TiO2 production. A new proces ...
- Middlemas, Scott, et al. Show all 4 Authors
- Journal of the American Chemical Society 2013 v.135 no.49 pp. 18248-18251
- embodied energy; energy efficiency; hydrides; leaching; magnesium; minerals; oxygen; sodium; titanium
- ... Titanium is the ninth most abundant element, fourth among common metals, in the Earth’s crust. Apart from some high-value applications in, e.g., the aerospace, biomedicine, and defense industries, the use of titanium in industrial or civilian applications has been extremely limited because of its high embodied energy and high cost. However, employing titanium would significantly reduce energy cons ...