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- Zhang, Shuanglu, et al. Show all 6 Authors
- Journal of cleaner production 2018 v.197 pp. 443-461
- algorithms; carbon dioxide; land transportation; models; operating costs; China
- ... The two-echelon collaborative multiple centers vehicle routing problem (2E-CMCVRP) integrates collaboration mechanism and the vehicle routing problem. Combining k-means clustering algorithm and an improved Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (Im-NSGA-II), this paper proposes a three-phase approach to simultaneously minimize the aggregate operating cost and reduce carbon dioxide emission. To ...