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Characteristics of aggregation in aqueous solutions of dialkylpyrrolidinium bromides

Tariq, M., Podgoršek, A., Ferguson, J.L., Lopes, A., Costa Gomes, M.F., Pádua, A.A.H., Rebelo, L.P.N., Canongia Lopes, J.N.
Journal of colloid and interface science 2011 v.360 no.2 pp. 606-616
aqueous solutions, bromides, cationic surfactants, crystallization, differential scanning calorimetry, diffusivity, enthalpy, fluorescence, glass transition, ionic liquids, melting point, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, surface tension, temperature, thermogravimetry, titration
Three pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids—N-dodecyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide, N-butyl-N-octylpyrrolidinium bromide, and N-butyl-N-dodecylpyrrolodinium bromide—were synthesized and characterized by their decomposition temperatures (Td) measured by thermogravimetric analysis, and by their melting point (Tₘ), glass transition (Tg) and crystallization temperatures (Tcᵣyₛₜ) determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Their self-aggregation properties in aqueous solution were studied and their behavior is compared with that of analogous conventional cationic surfactants, namely tetra-alkylammonium bromide salts. The critical micellar concentration, cmcs were obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC); which were further validated by measurements of interfacial tension, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. Enthalpies of micellization were measured at three different temperatures using ITC. The Taylor dispersion method and DOSY NMR were used to determine diffusion coefficients of the ionic liquid surfactants in aqueous solution at 298.15K. Several correlations between structural features of the surfactant species, such as the number and size of their alkyl chains, and the thermodynamic quantities of micellization—expressed by experimental values of cmc, counter-ion binding fraction, ΔₘᵢcG∘, ΔₘᵢcH∘, and ΔₘᵢcS∘—are established. We could interpret the different contributions of the two alkyl side chains to the aggregation properties in terms of the balance of interactions in homogeneous and micellar phases, contributing to understanding the aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in water and the parallel between these systems and traditional ionic surfactants.