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Effect of alkyl chain length, head group and nature of the surfactant on the hydrolysis of 1,3-benzoxazine-2,4-dione and its derivatives

Al-Ayed, Abdullah S., Sajid Ali, Mohd., Al-Lohedan, Hamad A., Al-Sulaim, Adel M., Issa, Zuheir A.
Journal of colloid and interface science 2011 v.361 no.1 pp. 205-211
alkaline hydrolysis, anionic surfactants, catalytic activity, cationic surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, hydrophobicity, ion exchange, micelles, models, sodium chloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate, temperature
The alkaline hydrolysis of carsalam (2H-1,3-benzoxazine-2,4(3H)-dione), denoted as I, and its N-substituted derivatives i.e., N-methyl-1,3-benzoxazine-2,4-dione (II) and N-benzoyl-1,3-benzoxazine-2,4-dione (III) was studied spectrophotometrically at physiological temperature. The rate of hydrolysis was found to be independent on the substrate concentration. In case of I, the reaction was fractional order with respect to [OH⁻] while for II and III, reaction obeyed the first order kinetics. Effect of cationic surfactants with varying hydrophobic chains (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, TTAB and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, DTAB) and with different head-group (cetyl pyridinium chloride, CPC) and anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) was also seen on the rate of alkaline hydrolysis of the carsalam and its derivatives. Cationic surfactants first catalyzed the rate of hydrolysis at lower concentrations followed by the inhibition at higher concentrations. The length of the alkyl chain had remarkable effect on the catalytic efficiency of the surfactants. Similarly N-substitution on substrate also increased the catalysis by micelles. The anionic surfactant SDS inhibited the rate of hydrolysis at all of the concentrations studied. The catalysis by cationic micelles followed by inhibition was treated in terms of the pseudophase ion-exchange model, while for the inhibition by SDS micelles the Menger–Portnoy model was used to fit the data. The effect of salts (NaCl, NaBr and (CH₃)₄NBr) was also seen on the hydrolysis of II and it was found that all salts inhibited the rate of reaction. The inhibition follows the trend NaCl<NaBr<(CH₃)₄NBr.