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Positive cooperative mechanistic binding of proteins at low concentrations: A comparison of poly (sodium N-undecanoyl sulfate) and sodium dodecyl sulfate
- Das, Susmita, Sylvain, Monica R., Fernand, Vivian E., Losso, Jack N., El-Zahab, Bilal, Warner, Isiah M.
- Journal of colloid and interface science 2011 v.363 no.2 pp. 585-594
- binding capacity, binding proteins, fluorescence, hydrophobicity, micelles, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, polymerization, sodium dodecyl sulfate, spectroscopy, sulfates, surfactants, tumor suppressor proteins
- The interactions of the negatively charged achiral molecular micelle, poly (sodium N-undecanoyl sulfate) (poly-SUS), with four different proteins using intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic probes, are studied. A comparison of poly-SUS with the conventional surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the monomeric species, SUS, is also reported. In this work, we observed that poly-SUS preferentially binds to acidic proteins, exhibiting positive cooperativity at concentrations less than 1mM for all proteins studied. Moreover, it appears that the hydrophobic microdomain formed through polymerization of the terminal vinyl group of the monomer, SUS, is largely responsible for the superior binding capacity of poly-SUS. From these results, we conclude that the interactions of poly-SUS with the acidic proteins are predominantly hydrophobic and postulate that poly-SUS would produce superior interactions relative to SDS at low concentrations in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). As predicted, use of poly-SUS allowed separation of the His-tagged tumor suppressor protein, p53, at sample buffer concentrations as low as 0.08% w/v (2.9mM), which is 24 times lower than required for SDS in the standard reducing PAGE protocol. This work highlights the use of poly-SUS as an effective surfactant in 1D biochemical analysis.