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Using colloid lithography to fabricate silicon nanopillar arrays on silicon substrates

Chen, Jem-Kun, Qui, Jia-Qi, Fan, Shih-Kang, Kuo, Shiao-Wei, Ko, Fu-Hsiang, Chu, Chih-Wei, Chang, Feng-Chih
Journal of colloid and interface science 2012 v.367 no.1 pp. 40-48
contact angle, hydrophilicity, nanogold, oxygen, silicon
In this study, we partially grafted geminal silanol groups in the protecting organic shells on the surfaces of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and then assembled the alkyl-AuNP-Si(OH)₄ particles onto the surfaces of silicon (Si) wafers. The density of assembled AuNPs on the Si surface was adjusted by varying the geminal silanol group content on the AuNP surface; at its optimal content, it approached the high assembly density (0.0254particles/nm²) of an AuNP assembled monolayer. Using reactive-ion etching (RIE) with the templates as masks, we transferred the patterned AuNP assemblies to form large-area, size-tunable, Si nanopillar arrays, the assembly density of which was controlled by the dimensions of the AuNPs. Using this colloidal lithography (CL) process, we could generate Si nanopillars having sub-10-nm diameters and high aspect ratios. The water contact angles of the high-aspect-ratio Si nanopillars approached 150°. We used another fabrication process, involving electron beam lithography and oxygen plasma treatment, to generate hydrophilic 200-nm-resolution line patterns on a Si surface to assemble the AuNPs into 200-nm-resolution dense lines for use as an etching mask. Subsequent CL provided a patterned Si nanopillar array having a feature size of 200nm on the Si surface. Using this approach, it was possible to pattern sub-10-nm Si nanopillar arrays having densities as high as 0.0232nm⁻².