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Pesticide relevance and their microbial degradation: a-state-of-art

Verma, Jay Prakash, Jaiswal, Durgesh Kumar, Sagar, R.
Re/views in environmental science and bio/technology 2014 v.13 no.4 pp. 429-466
agricultural soils, biodegradation, edaphic factors, nutrients, organic matter, pesticide residues, pesticides, plant growth, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, soil pollution, soil properties, sustainable agriculture
The extensive use of pesticide causes imbalance in properties of soil, water and air environments due to having problem of natural degradation. Such chemicals create diverse environmental problem via biomagnifications. Currently, microbial degradation is one of the important techniques for amputation and degradation of pesticide from agricultural soils. Some studies have reported that the genetically modified microorganism has ability to degrade specific pesticide but problem is that they cannot introduce in the field because they cause some other environmental problems. Only combined microbial consortia of indigenous and naturally occurring microbes isolated from particular contaminated environment have ability to degrade pesticides at faster rate. The bioaugumentation processes like addition of necessary nutrients or organic matter are required to speed up the rate of degradation of a contaminant by the indigenous microbes. The use of indigenous microbial strains having plant growth activities is ecologically superior over the chemical methods. In this review, we have attempted to discuss the recent challenge of pesticide problem in soil environment and their biodegradation with the help of effective indigenous pesticides degrading microorganisms. Further, we highlighted and explored the molecular mechanism for the pesticide degradation in soil with effective indigenous microbial consortium. This review suggests that the use of pesticide degrading microbial consortia which is an eco-friendly technology may be suitable for the sustainable agriculture production.