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Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by polypyrrole/Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanocomposite

Bhaumik, Madhumita, Leswifi, Taile Yvonne, Maity, Arjun, Srinivasu, V.V., Onyango, Maurice S.
Journal of hazardous materials 2011 v.186 no.1 pp. 150-159
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-radiation, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, adsorbents, adsorption, aqueous solutions, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, ferric chloride, ion exchange, ions, iron oxides, magnetic properties, models, nanocomposites, nanoparticles, oxidants, pH, polymerization, reflectance, scanning electron microscopes, temperature, thermodynamics, transmission electron microscopes
Polypyrrole (PPy)/Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanocomposite as a novel adsorbent was prepared via in-situ polymerization of pyrrole (Py) monomer using FeCl₃ oxidant in aqueous medium in which Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles were suspended. The adsorbent was characterized by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (ATR-FTIR), Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) method, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic property of the adsorbent was measured by electron spin resonance (ESR). Subsequently, the ability of the adsorbent to remove fluoride ions from aqueous solution was demonstrated in a batch sorption mode. Results reveal that the adsorption is rapid and that the adsorbent has high affinity for fluoride, which depends on temperature, solution pH and adsorbent dose. From equilibrium modelling, the equilibrium data is well described by Freundlich and Langmuir–Freundlich isotherms while the adsorption kinetics is described by the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters confirm the spontaneity and endothermic nature of the fluoride adsorption. Meanwhile, the fluoride adsorption proceeds by an ion exchange mechanism.