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Removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K30) modified nanoscale zero valent iron
- Chen, Hua, Luo, Hanjin, Lan, Yuecun, Dong, Tingting, Hu, Bingjie, Wang, Yiping
- Journal of hazardous materials 2011 v.192 no.1 pp. 44-53
- X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, acetates, anions, aqueous solutions, iron, iron oxides, isoelectric point, nanoparticles, pH, particle size, surface area, temperature, tetracycline, transmission electron microscopy
- The interactions of tetracycline (TC) with nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) modified by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K30) were investigated using batch experiments as a function of reactant concentration, pH, temperature, and competitive anions. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM), BET surface area and Zeta (ζ)-potential analyses indicated that the mean particle size was 10–40nm with a surface area of 36.90m²/g, and a iso-electric point of PVP-NZVI was 7.2. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) of modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (PVP-NZVI) revealed that the iron nanoparticles likely have a core of zero-valent iron (Fe⁰), while a shell is largely made of iron oxides. Degradation of TC was strongly dependent on pH and temperature. The presence of silicate and phosphate strongly inhibited the removal of TC, whereas acetate and sulfate only caused slight inhibition. LC–MS analysis of the treated solution showed that the degradation products from TC resulted from the removal of functional groups from the TC ring. The degradation products were detected both in the treated solution (initial pH of 3.0 and 6.5) and on the surface of PVP-NZVI after 4-h interaction, indicating that PVP-NZVI can adsorb both TC and its degradation products.