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HIV-1 Infection Induces Acetylation of NPM1 That Facilitates Tat Localization and Enhances Viral Transactivation

Gadad, Shrikanth S., Rajan, Roshan Elizabeth, Senapati, Parijat, Chatterjee, Snehajyoti, Shandilya, Jayasha, Dash, Prasanta Kumar, Ranga, Udaykumar, Kundu, Tapas K.
Journal of molecular biology 2011 v.410 no.5 pp. 997-1007
HIV infections, Human immunodeficiency virus 1, acetylation, chromatin, enzymes, eukaryotic cells, genome, histones, humans, pathogenesis, proviruses, small interfering RNA, transcription (genetics), transcriptional activation
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) following integration hijacks host cell machineries where chromatinization of the viral genome regulates its latency, transcription, and replication. The cooperation among ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors, posttranslational modifying enzymes, and histone chaperones is well established during transcriptional activation in eukaryotes. However, the role of histone chaperones in transcription of the HIV promoter is poorly understood. Previous studies from our group have established the role of the human histone chaperone nucleophosmin (NPM1) in the acetylation-dependent chromatin transcription. NPM1 is known to interact with HIV-Tat. Here, we report that infection by HIV-1 induces the acetylation of histone chaperone NPM1. Acetylation of NPM1 was found to be critical for nuclear localization of Tat as well as Tat-mediated transcription alluding to the critical role for the host factor towards viral pathogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown experiments mediated by small interfering RNA identified the critical role played by the chaperone NPM1 in transcriptional activation of the integrated provirus. These results shed further insights into the possible role of histone chaperone NPM1 acetylation in viral gene transcription, which could be a potential therapeutic target.