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Serum Deprivation Confers the MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Line with an EGFR/JAK3/PLD2 System That Maximizes Cancer Cell Invasion
- Ye, Qing, Kantonen, Samuel, Gomez-Cambronero, Julian
- Journal of Molecular Biology 2013 v.425 pp. 755-766
- RNA interference, epidermal growth factor receptors, blood serum, growth factors, humans, non-specific protein-tyrosine kinase, cell culture, enzyme activity, phenotype, leukocytes, metastasis, chemotaxis, apigenin, breast neoplasms
- Our laboratory has reported earlier that in leukocytes, phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is under control of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), which mediates chemotaxis. Investigating JAK3 in cancer cells led to an important discovery as exponentially growing MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, which are highly proliferative and metastatic, did not substantially use JAK3 to activate PLD2. However, in 2-h or 16-h starved cell cultures, JAK3 switches to a PLD2-enhancing role, consistent with the needs of those cells to enter a “survival state” that relies on an increase in PLD2 activity to withstand serum deprivation. Using a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, the flavonoid 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone (apigenin), as well as RNA silencing, we found that the invasive phenotype of MDA-MB-231 cells is mediated by PLD2 under direct regulation of both JAK3 and the tyrosine kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Furthermore, serum-deprived cells in culture show an upregulated EGFR/JAK3/PLD2-PA system and are especially sensitive to a combination of JAK3 and PLD2 enzymatic activity inhibitors (30nM apigenin and 300nM 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI), respectively). Thus, a multi-layered activation of cell invasion by two kinases (EGFR and JAK3) and a phospholipase (PLD2) provides regulatory flexibility and maximizes the aggressively invasive power of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This is especially important in the absence of growth factors in serum, coincidental with migration of these cells to new locations.