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Structure of the Pseudorabies Virus Capsid: Comparison with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Differential Binding of Essential Minor Proteins
- Homa, FL, Huffman, JB, Toropova, K, Lopez, HR, Makhov, AM, Conway, JF
- Journal of Molecular Biology 2013 v.425 pp. 3415-3428
- Human herpesvirus 1, Suid herpesvirus 1, X-radiation, capsid, crystal structure, green fluorescent protein, microscopy, models, mutants, virion
- The structure of pseudorabies virus (PRV) capsids isolated from the nucleus of infected cells and from PRV virions was determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and compared to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsids. PRV capsid structures closely resemble those of HSV-1, including distribution of the capsid vertex specific component (CVSC) of HSV-1, which is a heterodimer of the pUL17 and pUL25 proteins. Occupancy of CVSC on all PRV capsids is near 100%, compared to ~50% reported for HSV-1 C-capsids and 25% or less that we measure for HSV-1 A- and B-capsids. A PRV mutant lacking pUL25 does not produce C-capsids and lacks visible CVSC density in the cryo-EM-based reconstruction. A reconstruction of PRV capsids in which green fluorescent protein was fused within the N-terminus of pUL25 confirmed previous studies with a similar HSV-1 capsid mutant localizing pUL25 to the CVSC density region that is distal to the penton. However, comparison of the CVSC density in a 9-Å-resolution PRV C-capsid map with the available crystal structure of HSV-1 pUL25 failed to find a satisfactory fit, suggesting either a different fold for PRV pUL25 or a capsid-bound conformation for pUL25 that does not match the X-ray model determined from protein crystallized in solution. The PRV capsid imaged within virions closely resembles C-capsids with the addition of weak but significant density shrouding the pentons that we attribute to tegument proteins. Our results demonstrate significant structure conservation between the PRV and HSV capsids.