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Innate Immune Response to Arenaviral Infection: A Focus on the Highly Pathogenic New World Hemorrhagic Arenaviruses

Koma, Takaaki, Huang, Cheng, Kolokoltsova, Olga A., Brasier, Allan R., Paessler, Slobodan
Journal of Molecular Biology 2013 v.425 pp. 4893-4903
Arenaviridae, RNA, fever, geographical distribution, human diseases, immune response, innate immunity, interferons, pathogenesis, phylogeny, proteins, viruses
Arenaviruses are enveloped, negative-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the family Arenaviridae. This diverse family can be further classified into OW (Old World) and NW (New World) arenaviruses based on their antigenicity, phylogeny, and geographical distribution. Many of the NW arenaviruses are highly pathogenic viruses that cause systemic human infections characterized by hemorrhagic fever and/or neurological manifestations, constituting public health problems in their endemic regions. NW arenavirus infection induces a variety of host innate immune responses, which could contribute to the viral pathogenesis and/or influence the final outcome of virus infection in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, NW arenaviruses have also developed several strategies to counteract the host innate immune response. We will review current knowledge regarding the interplay between the host innate immune response and NW arenavirus infection in vitro and in vivo, with emphasis on viral-encoded proteins and their effect on the type I interferon response.