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Glucose deprivation reversibly down-regulates tissue plasminogen activator via proteasomal degradation in rat primary astrocytes

Cho, Kyu Suk, Joo, So Hyun, Choi, Chang Soon, Kim, Ki Chan, Ko, Hyun Myung, Park, Jin Hee, Kim, Pitna, Hur, Jun, Lee, Sung Hoon, Bahn, Geon Ho, Ryu, Jong Hoon, Lee, Jongmin, Han, Seol-Heui, Kwon, Kyoung Ja, Shin, Chan Young
Life sciences 2013 v.92 no.17-19 pp. 929-937
Western blotting, astrocytes, brain, casein, cell viability, gene expression, gene expression regulation, glucose, messenger RNA, rats, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, signal transduction, t-plasminogen activator, translation (genetics)
AIMS: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an essential neuromodulator whose involvement in multiple functions such as synaptic plasticity, cytokine-like immune function and regulation of cell survival mandates rapid and tight tPA regulation in the brain. We investigated the possibility that a transient metabolic challenge induced by glucose deprivation may affect tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes, the main cell type responsible for metabolic regulation in the CNS. MAIN METHODS: Rat primary astrocytes were incubated in serum-free DMEM without glucose. Casein zymography was used to determine tPA activity, and tPA mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. The signaling pathways regulating tPA activity were identified by Western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: Glucose deprivation rapidly down-regulated the activity of tPA without affecting its mRNA level in rat primary astrocytes; this effect was mimicked by translational inhibitors. The down-regulation of tPA was accompanied by increased tPA degradation, which may be modulated by a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Glucose deprivation induced activation of PI3K-Akt-GSK3β, p38 and AMPK, and inhibition of these pathways using LY294002, SB203580 and compound C significantly inhibited glucose deprivation-induced tPA down-regulation, demonstrating the essential role of these pathways in tPA regulation in glucose-deprived astrocytes. SIGNIFICANCE: Rapid and reversible regulation of tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes during metabolic crisis may minimize energy-requiring neurologic processes in stressed situations. This effect may thereby increase the opportunity to invest cellular resources in cell survival and may allow rapid re-establishment of normal cellular function after the crisis.