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Chromium modulates expressions of neuronal plasticity markers and glial fibrillary acidic proteins in hypoglycemia-induced brain injury

Sahin, Kazim, Tuzcu, Mehmet, Orhan, Cemal, Ali, Shakir, Sahin, Nurhan, Gencoglu, Hasan, Ozkan, Yusuf, Hayirli, Armagan, Gozel, Nevzat, Komorowski, James R.
Life sciences 2013 v.93 no.25-26 pp. 1039-1048
Western blotting, cell adhesion, cerebellum, chromium, cortex, drinking water, glucose, glucose transporters, hippocampus, hypoglycemia, insulin, neuroplasticity, protective effect, rats, transcription factor NF-kappa B
AIMS: This experiment investigated if chromium (Cr) as Cr-histidinate (CrHis) and Cr29 picolinate (CrPic) have a protective role in rats with hypoglycemia-induced brain injury, assessed by neuronal plasticity and regeneration potential. MAIN METHODS: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were prospectively divided into 2 groups: control and hypoglycemic (induced by insulin administration, 15U/kg, i.p., n=56). Hypoglycemic rats were then received randomly 1) none, 2) dextrose (on the day of sampling), 3) CrHis, or 4) CrPic. Cr-chelates were delivered via drinking water (providing 8μg elemental Cr per day) for one week prior to the hypoglycemia induction. The expressions of neuroplasticity markers [neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)], glucose transporters (GLUT), and nuclear transcription proteins [nuclear factor-kappa (NF-κB), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and 4-hydroxyl nonenal (HNE)] were determined using Western blot. KEY FINDINGS: Hypoglycemia caused increases in the expressions of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, GFAP, NF-κB and HNE and decreases in the expression of NCAM's, GAP-43 and Nrf2 in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex. Cr-chelates suppressed expressions of GLUTs, GFAP, NF-κB and HNE expressions and enhanced expressions of NCAM, GAP-43 and Nrf2, which were more notable for CrHis than for CrPic. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, hypoglycemia leads to cerebral injury and Cr-chelates, particularly CrHis have protective and regeneration potential in cerebral tissues through modulating neuroplasticity markers and nuclear transcription proteins as well as facilitating glucose transporters.