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In vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies on apelin's effect on myocardial glucose uptake
- Xu, Shiming, Han, Pei, Huang, Mei, Wu, Joseph C., Chang, Chingpin, Tsao, Philip S., Yue, Patrick
- Peptides 2012 v.37 no.2 pp. 320-326
- RNA interference, Western blotting, antibodies, energy, fluorescent antibody technique, glucose, glucose transporters, homeostasis, image analysis, in vitro studies, mice, phosphorylation
- Apelin is an endogenous peptide hormone recently implicated in glucose homeostasis. However, whether apelin affects glucose uptake in myocardial tissue remains undetermined. In this study, we utilized in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro methods to study apelin's effect on myocardial glucose uptake. Pyroglutamated apelin-13 (2mg/kg/day) was administered to C57BL6/J mice for 7 days. In vivo myocardial glucose uptake was measured by FDG-PET scanning, and GLUT4 translocation was assessed by immunofluorescence imaging. For in vitro studies, differentiated H9C2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to pyroglutamated apelin-13 (100nM) for 2h. To test their involvement in apelin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake, the energy sensing protein kinase AMPK were inhibited by pharmacologic inhibition (compound C) and RNA interference. IRS-1 phosphorylation was assessed by western blotting using an antibody directed against IRS-1 Ser-789-phosphorylated form. We found that apelin increased myocardial glucose uptake and GLUT4 membrane translocation in C57BL6/J mice. Apelin was also sufficient to increase glucose uptake in H9C2 cells. Apelin-mediated glucose uptake was significantly decreased by AMPK inhibition. Finally, apelin increased IRS-1 Ser-789 phosphorylation in an AMPK-dependent manner. The results of our study demonstrated that apelin increases myocardial glucose uptake through a pathway involving AMPK. Apelin also facilitates IRS-1 Ser-789 phosphorylation, suggesting a novel mechanism for its effects on glucose uptake.