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A practical eco-environmental distribution network planning model including fuel cells and non-renewable distributed energy resources
- Soroudi, Alireza, Ehsan, Mehdi, Zareipour, Hamidreza
- Renewable energy 2011 v.36 no.1 pp. 179-188
- distribution (economics), economic costs, emissions, energy, energy resources, fuel cells, models, planning, system optimization
- This paper presents a long-term dynamic multi-objective planning model for distribution network expansion along with distributed energy options. The proposed model optimizes two objectives, namely costs and emissions and determines the optimal schemes of sizing, placement and specially the dynamics (i.e., timing) of investments on distributed generation units and network reinforcements over the planning period. An efficient two-stage heuristic method is proposed to solve the formulated planning problem. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated by applying it to a distribution network and comparing the simulation results with other methods and models.