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(−)-Xanthatin up-regulation of the GADD45γ tumor suppressor gene in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells: Role of topoisomerase IIα inhibition and reactive oxygen species

Takeda, Shuso, Noguchi, Momoko, Matsuo, Kazumasa, Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro, Kudo, Taichi, Nishimura, Hajime, Okamoto, Yoshiko, Amamoto, Toshiaki, Shindo, Mitsuru, Omiecinski, Curtis J., Aramaki, Hironori
Toxicology 2013 v.305 pp. 1-9
DNA, DNA damage, acetylcysteine, breast neoplasms, cell death, gene expression regulation, humans, messenger RNA, reactive oxygen species, toxicology, tumor suppressor genes
Previously, we reported that (−)-xanthatin, a naturally occurring xanthanolide present in the Cocklebur plant, exhibits potent anti-proliferative effects on human breast cancer cells, accompanied by an induction of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 45γ (GADD45γ), recognized recently as a novel tumor suppressor gene. However, the mechanisms mediating this activation were unknown. Topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) inhibition has been reported to produce a cell death response accompanied by an atypical DNA laddering fragmentation profile, similar to that noted previously for (–)-xanthatin. Therefore we hypothesized that (−)-xanthatin's GADD45γ activation was mediated through the Topo IIα pathway. Here, we identify that (−)-xanthatin does function as a catalytic inhibitor of Topo IIα, promoting DNA damage. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were elevated in cells treated with this agent. Mechanistically, it was determined that the induced levels of GADD45γ mRNA resulting from (−)-xanthatin exposures were stabilized by coordinately produced ROS, and that the consequent induction of GADD45γ mRNA, GADD45γ protein and ROS generation were abrogated by co-treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Taken together, the data support the concept that Topo IIα inhibition by (−)-xanthatin is a trigger that stimulates expression of DNA damage-inducible GADD45γ mRNA and that concomitantly produced ROS act downstream to further enhance the GADD45γ mRNA/GADD45γ protein induction process, resulting in breast cancer cell death.