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Analytical methods for anti-doping control in sport: anabolic steroids with 4,9,11-triene structure in urine
- Brun, Eva M., Puchades, Rosa, Maquieira, Ángel
- Trends in analytical chemistry 2011 v.30 no.5 pp. 771-783
- anabolic steroids, derivatization, detection limit, drugs, gas chromatography, humans, liquid chromatography, metabolites, pretreatment, screening, sports, steroids, urine
- Doping control in sport is mandatory to detect and to control the use of prohibited substances. Due to the growing number of targets, the analysis of doping compounds and their metabolites is carried out using established screening methods. However, detection of anabolic steroids with 4,9,11-triene structure in urine is problematic, so it is necessary to improve the methods. We review the state of the art in doping-control analysis of 4,9,11-trien-3-one steroids, providing an overview of the screening and confirmatory methods developed for these analytes in human urine. First, we review chromatographic techniques. We discuss difficulties in the derivatization of those compounds prior to gas chromatography analyses. In recent years, liquid chromatography has been the preferred technique in drug testing in sport, due to the reduced sample pre-treatment, improved limits of detection and comprehensiveness. We also report on advances and limitations of immunochemical techniques for the analysis of this group of substances.