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Methods for the determination of biomarkers of exposure to emerging pollutants in human specimens
- Yusa, Vicent, Ye, Xiaoyun, Calafat, Antonia M.
- Trends in analytical chemistry 2012 v.38 pp. 129-142
- UV filters, biomarkers, blood, breast milk, chromatography, environmental exposure, flame retardants, humans, insect repellents, odors, perfluorocarbons, phenols, phthalates, pollutants, preservatives, quantitative analysis, urine
- Biomonitoring is a very useful tool for assessing human exposure to environmental pollutants. This review discusses recent methods for the quantitative measurement of biomarkers of exposure to different classes of chemicals used in personal-care products (e.g., musk fragrances, preservatives, UV filters, and insect repellents) and consumer products (e.g., organophosphate flame retardants, phthalate esters, perfluorinated compounds, and industrial phenols). The measurements are mainly taken in urine, blood, and breast milk. We also discuss the different procedures commonly used for sample-pretreatment, extraction, and clean up, and chromatographic techniques currently used to determine these compounds. Finally, we present data on the main biomarkers occurring in different human specimens.