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The high mobility group box: the ultimate utility player of a cell
- Malarkey, Christopher S., Churchill, Mair E.A.
- Trends in biochemical sciences 2012 v.37 no.12 pp. 553-562
- DNA, DNA-binding domains, DNA-binding proteins, nucleoproteins, post-translational modification, receptors, transcription factors
- High mobility group (HMG) box proteins are abundant and ubiquitous DNA binding proteins with a remarkable array of functions throughout the cell. The structure of the HMG box DNA binding domain and general mechanisms of DNA binding and bending have been known for more than a decade. However, new mechanisms that regulate HMG box protein intracellular translocation, and by which HMG box proteins recognize DNA with and without sequence specificity, have only recently been uncovered. This review focuses primarily on the Sry-like HMG box family, HMGB1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A. For these proteins, structural and biochemical studies have shown that HMG box protein modularity, interactions with other DNA binding proteins and cellular receptors, and post-translational modifications are key regulators of their diverse functions.