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Effectiveness of the monovalent influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in Navarre, Spain, 2009–2010: Cohort and case-control study

Castilla, Jesús, Morán, Julio, Martínez-Artola, Víctor, Fernández-Alonso, Mirian, Guevara, Marcela, Cenoz, Manuel García, Reina, Gabriel, Alvarez, Nerea, Arriazu, Maite, Elía, Fernando, Salcedo, Esther, Barricarte, Aurelio
Vaccine 2011 v.29 no.35 pp. 5919-5924
case-control studies, health services, influenza, pandemic, patients, physicians, vaccination, vaccines, viruses, Spain
We defined a population-based cohort (596,755 subjects) in Navarre, Spain, using electronic records from physicians, to evaluate the effectiveness of the monovalent A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in preventing influenza in the 2009–2010 pandemic season. During the 9-week period of vaccine availability and circulation of the A(H1N1)2009 virus, 4608 cases of medically attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) were registered (46 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for sociodemographic covariables, outpatient visits and major chronic conditions, vaccination was associated with a 32% (95% CI: 8–50%) reduction in the overall incidence of MA-ILI. In a test negative case–control analysis nested in the cohort, swabs from 633 patients were included, and 123 were confirmed for A(H1N1)2009 influenza. No confirmed case had received A(H1N1)2009 vaccine versus 9.6% of controls (p<0.001). The vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 89% (95% CI: 36–100%) after adjusting for age, health care setting, major chronic conditions and period. Pandemic vaccine was effective in preventing MA-ILI and confirmed cases of influenza A(H1N1)2009 in the 2009–2010 season.