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Evaluation of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of orally delivered Shigella type III secretion system proteins IpaB and IpaD

Heine, Shannon J., Diaz-McNair, Jovita, Martinez-Becerra, Francisco J., Choudhari, Shyamal P., Clements, John D., Picking, Wendy L., Pasetti, Marcela F.
Vaccine 2013 v.31 no.28 pp. 2919-2929
Escherichia coli, Shigella, animal models, antigens, blood serum, heat, humans, immune response, immunization, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, interleukin-10, interleukin-17, interleukin-2, interleukin-5, lungs, mice, morbidity, mortality, mutants, oral administration, pathogens, plasmids, shigellosis, spleen, type III secretion system, vaccines
Shigella spp. are food- and water-borne pathogens that cause shigellosis, a severe diarrheal and dysenteric disease that is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in resource-poor countries. No licensed vaccine is available to prevent shigellosis. We have recently demonstrated that Shigella invasion plasmid antigens (Ipas), IpaB and IpaD, which are components of the bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS), can prevent infection in a mouse model of intranasal immunization and lethal pulmonary challenge. Because they are conserved across Shigella spp. and highly immunogenic, these proteins are excellent candidates for a cross-protective vaccine. Ideally, such a vaccine could be administered to humans orally to induce mucosal and systemic immunity. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Shigella IpaB and IpaD administered orally with a double mutant of the Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (dmLT) as a mucosal adjuvant. We characterized the immune responses induced by oral vs. intranasal immunization and the protective efficacy using a mouse pulmonary infection model. Serum IgG and fecal IgA against IpaB were induced after oral immunization. These responses, however, were lower than those obtained after intranasal immunization despite a 100-fold dosage increase. The level of protection induced by oral immunization with IpaB and IpaD was 40%, while intranasal immunization resulted in 90% protective efficacy. IpaB- and IpaD-specific IgA antibody-secreting cells in the lungs and spleen and T-cell-derived IL-2, IL-5, IL-17 and IL-10 were associated with protection. These results demonstrate the immunogenicity of orally administered IpaB and IpaD and support further studies in humans.