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Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in sludge, sediment and fish from municipal dumpsite at Surabaya, Indonesia
- Ilyas, Muhammad, Sudaryanto, Agus, Setiawan, Iwan E., Riyadi, Adi S., Isobe, Tomohiko, Tanabe, Shinsuke
- Chemosphere 2013 v.93 pp. 1500-1510
- bromination, dechlorination, fish, flame retardants, gas chromatography, isomers, landfills, mass spectrometry, polychlorinated biphenyls, sediments, sewage sludge, wells, Indonesia
- We investigated the PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs contamination in sludge, sediments and fish from various locations including raw leachate pond, leachate treatment plans (LTPs), control wells and reference site at open landfill of municipal dumpsite, Surabaya City, Indonesia. 62 PCBs and 14 PBDEs congeners, and 3 HBCDs isomers were identified and quantified using GC–MS and LC–MS/MS, respectively. Concentration ranges and median (value in parentheses) of PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs were from not detected (ND) to 60 (3.9) ngg−1 dw, 0.0075 to 45 (4.5) ngg−1 dw and ND to 2.8 (0.052) ngg−1 dw in sludge and sediments, respectively. While in two polled of fish samples were 30–55ngg−1 lw, 6.6–11ngg−1 lw and 1.6–3.3ngg−1 lw, respectively. Among the sampling sites, the highest level of PCBs and PBDEs were detected in sludge from raw leachate pond. However, PCBs and PBDEs levels were showing decreased in LTP-1 that could be due to the bacterial degradation but not in LTP-2, HBCDs were more stable in both LTPs. Levels of PCBs and BFRs in sludge at the present study were lower than those reported in sewage sludge reported from some other countries. PCBs profiles were mainly composed in that order by CB-138, -153, -180, -101, -118 and -28, while by BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -28 for PBDEs in sludge, sediments and fish. Profiles of HBCDs were predominantly composed by γ- and α-isomers in sludge and fish, respectively. Debromination, dechlorination, commercial formulations used and congener-specific accumulation of those contaminants are the factors influenced the profiles.