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Fates and transport of PPCPs in soil receiving reclaimed water irrigation

Chen, Weiping, Xu, Jian, Lu, Sidan, Jiao, Wentao, Wu, Laosheng, Chang, Andrew C.
Chemosphere 2013 v.93 pp. 2621-2630
adsorption, biodegradation, bisphenol A, clofibric acid, computer software, drainage water, estrone, field experimentation, ibuprofen, leaching, risk, sodium, soil depth, soil profiles, turf grasses, volatilization, wastewater irrigation, California
Fates and transport of 9 commonly found PPCPs of the reclaimed water were simulated based on the HYDRUS-1D software that was validated with data generated from field experiments. Under the default scenario in which the model parameters and input data represented the typical conditions of turf grass irrigation in southern California, the adsorption, degradation, and volatilization of clofibric acid, ibuprofen, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, naproxen, triclosan, diclofenac sodium, bisphenol A and estrone in the receiving soils were tracked for 10years. At the end, their accumulations in the 90cm soil profile varied from less than 1ngg−1 to about 140ngg−1 and their concentrations in the drainage water in the 90cm soil depth varied from nil to μgL−1 levels. The adsorption and microbial degradation processes interacted to contain the PPCPs entirely within surface 40cm of the soil profiles. Leaching and volatilization were not significant processes governing the PPCPs in the soils. The extent of accumulations in the soils did not appear to produce undue ecological risks to the soil biota. PPCPs did not represent any potential environmental harm in reclaimed water irrigation.