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Effects of electrokinetic treatment of contaminated sludge on migration and transformation of Cd, Ni and Zn in various bonding states
- Gao, Jie, Luo, Qi-Shi, Zhu, Jiang, Zhang, Chang-Bo, Li, Bing-Zhi
- Chemosphere 2013 v.93 pp. 2869-2876
- cadmium, correlation, heavy metals, nickel, sludge, zinc
- This study assesses the effect of electrokinetic processes on the migration and bonding states of various heavy metals in municipal sludge. The transformation and migration are discussed through the examination of sludge characteristics and distribution of Cd, Zn and Ni after electrokinetic treatments. The migration and distribution of the contaminants after the electrokinetic treatments were determined for each sludge sample by sequential extraction. The noticeable changes on the average speciation fractions of Cd, Zn and Ni were observed that oxidizable heavy metals increased and reducible fraction decreased due to the application of voltage. Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that the amounts of different bonding states of Zn and Ni were significantly correlated (P<0.05) with durations and resistance. The oxidizable Zn was negatively correlated with exchangeable and reducible Zn. Moreover, reducible Zn had a close negative relationship with residual Zn. The bonding state of Ni was significantly related to the durations of electrokinetic processes, indicating the existing of mutual transformation between different speciation fractions over time. The analysis also indicated that the exchangeable Cd showed a close negative relationship with reducible Cd (P<0.01), whereas the reducible Cd was negatively related to residual Cd (P<0.05).