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Physalin B inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the gut of Rhodnius prolixus by affecting the immune system and microbiota
- Castro, Daniele P., Moraes, Caroline S., Gonzalez, Marcelo S., Ribeiro, Ivone M., Tomassini, Therezinha C.B., Azambuja, Patrícia, Garcia, Eloi S.
- Journal of insect physiology 2012 v.58 no.12 pp. 1620-1625
- intestinal microorganisms, insect development, parasites, Rhodnius prolixus, immunomodulators, blood meal, epimastigotes, insect vectors, immune system, Physalis angulata, Trypanosoma cruzi, oral administration, digestive system, nitrates, antibacterial properties
- Physalin B is a natural secosteroidal, extracted from the Solanaceae plant, Physalis angulata, and it presents immune-modulator effects on the bloodsucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus. In this work, R. prolixus was treated with physalin B at a concentration of 1mg/ml of blood meal (oral application), or 20ng/insect (applied topically) or 57ng/cm² of filter paper (contact treatment), and infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Dm28c clone (2×10⁶ epimastigotes/insect). The three types of applications significantly decreased the number of T. cruzi Dm28c in the gut comparing with the non-treated infected insects (controls). All groups of infected insects treated with physalin B had higher numbers of bacterial microbiota in the gut than the non-treated controls infected with T. cruzi. We observed that the infected physalin B insects with topical and contact treatments had a lower antibacterial activity in the gut when compared with control infected insects. Furthermore, infected insects with the physalin B oral treatment produced higher levels of nitrite and nitrate in the gut than control infected insects. These results demonstrate that physalin B decreases the T. cruzi transmission by inhibiting the parasite development in the insect vector R. prolixus. Herein the importance of physalin B modulation on the immune system and microbiota population in terms of parasite development and transmission are discussed.