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Hydrogen peroxide, iodine solution and methylene solution highly enhance the hatching rate of freshwater ornamental fish species

Chambel, João, Costa, Ricardo, Gomes, Mónica, Mendes, Susana, Baptista, Teresa, Pedrosa, Rui
Aquaculture international 2014 v.22 no.6 pp. 1743-1751
Danio rerio, disinfection, eggs, freshwater, hatching, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, margin of safety, methylene blue, models, ornamental fish
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide, iodine solution (PVP) and methylene blue on eggs disinfection of three ornamental fish species, Danio rerio, Pterophyllum scalare and Gymnocorymbus ternetzi. The main idea was to create conditions to enhance the hatching rates. Eggs of each species were exposed to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (5, 10, 15 and 25 mg/L), PVP (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg/L) and methylene blue (0.5 1, 2 and 3 mg/L). The optimal doses ranged between species and chemicals: for G. ternetzi, the concentrations that high enhanced the hatching rate were 1 mg/L for the PVP treatment, 25 mg/L for the hydrogen peroxide treatment and 3 mg/L for methylene blue treatment; for P. scalare, the best results were achieved with 25 mg/L for hydrogen peroxide treatment and 3 mg/L for methylene blue treatment. By contrast, for all the different chemical did not increased the D. rerio hatching rate. Results showed that hydrogen peroxide and methylene blue are the most versatile, effective and safe to use in these species. On the other hand, PVP can be used but with many precautions due to very low safety margin. Results clearly show that the optimal concentration of chemicals for eggs disinfection is fish species dependent and it is completely wrong to extrapolate concentrations between different chemicals and fish species. Our study suggests that P. scalare can be used as a model in study of effectiveness of new chemicals with potential to disinfect water and increase hatching rates.