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Low-density solvent based ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and on-column derivatization combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of carbamate pesticides in environmental water samples

Guo, Liang, Lee, Hian Kee
Journal of chromatography 2012 v.1235 pp. 1-9
carbamate pesticides, centrifugation, derivatization, detection limit, emulsifying, emulsions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, insecticide residues, microextraction, river water, solvents, ultrasonics, water pollution
A fast and efficient method for the determination of trace level of carbamate pesticides using a lower-density-than-water solvent for ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction coupled to on-column derivatization and analysis by GC–MS has been developed and studied. In this approach, a soft plastic Pasteur pipette was employed as a convenient extraction device. Fifty microliters of extraction solvent, of lower density than water, was injected into the sample solution held in the pipette. The latter was immediately immersed in an ultrasound water bath to form an emulsion. After 2min extraction, the emulsion was fractionated into two layers by centrifugation. The upper layer (organic extract) could be collected conveniently by squeezing the bulb of the pipette, now held upside down, to move it into the narrow stem of the device, facilitating its retrieval for analysis. The extract was then combined with trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide and directly injected into a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) system for on-column derivatization and analysis. The on-column derivatization provided an added convenience (since a separate step was not necessary). Parameters affecting the derivatization and extraction were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, the method demonstrated high extraction efficiency with low limits of detection of between 0.01 and 0.1μg/L, good linearity in the range of 0.05–50μg/L, to 0.5–100μg/L, and good repeatability (RSD below 9.2%, n=5). The proposed method was evaluated by determining carbamate pesticides in river water samples.