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Hydrophilic interaction chromatographic analysis of anthocyanins

Willemse, Chandré M., Stander, Maria A., de Villiers, André
Journal of chromatography 2013 v.1319 pp. 127-140
acylation, anthocyanins, black beans, blueberries, cabbage, glycosylation, grapes, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, hydrophilicity, mass spectrometry, phenolic compounds, radishes, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, silica
Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) provides an alternative separation mode for the analysis of phenolic compounds, in which aqueous-organic mobile phases with polar stationary phases are used. This paper reports the evaluation of HILIC for the analysis of the natural pigments anthocyanins, which are of importance because of their chromophoric properties and a range of health benefits associated with their consumption. Several HILIC stationary phases (silica, diol, amine, cyanopropyl and amide) and mobile phase combinations were evaluated, with the latter proving particularly important due to the distinctive chromatographic behaviour of anthocyanins. Diode array detection was used for selective detection of anthocyanins, while high resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was used for compound identification. The potential of HILIC separation is demonstrated for a range of anthocyanins varying in glycosylation and acylation patterns found in blueberries, grape skins, black beans, red cabbage and red radish. HILIC is shown to be a complementary separation method to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) due to the alternative retention mechanism.